gallium germanium geochemistry

The geochemistry of inorganic germanium in natural waters ...

Alan M. Shiller, Daphne M. Frilot, The geochemistry of gallium relative to aluminum in Californian streams, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 10.1016/0016-7037(96)00002-6, ... The geochemistry of germanium in deep-sea cherts, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 10.1016/0016-7037(88)90135-4, ...

The geochemistry of gallium relative to aluminum in ...

Apr 01, 1996· Germanium, like Ga, is enriched in sphalerite. None- theless, Ge/Si ratios in rivers seem to be generally deter- mined by the nature of the weathering process rather than by Because our samples were deliberately collected in rural the mineralogy of the drainage basin (Mortlock and Froehch, areas, input of anthropogenic Ga likely would be from ...

(PDF) Indium, germanium and gallium in volcanic- and ...

PDF | On Jan 1, 2015, Suzanne Paradis published Indium, germanium and gallium in volcanic- and sediment-hosted base-metal sulphide deposits | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ...

The distribution of gallium, germanium, cobalt, chromium ...

The concentrations of gallium, germanium, cobalt, chromium, and copper have been determined spectrographically in eighty-eight iron meteorites, including representatives from all structural classes, and in nine stony-iron meteorites. The analytical procedures and the structural characteristics of the meteorites studied are described.It is ...

(PDF) Gallium and germanium geochemistry during magmatic ...

PDF | Contents of Ga and Ge in granites, rhyolites, orthogneisses and greisens of different geochemical types from the Bohemian Massif were studied... | Find, read and cite all the research you ...

Life Cycles of Byproduct Critical Minerals

Project objectives are to 1) assess the overall life cycle of selected byproduct critical elements tellurium (Te), indium (In), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge), 2) perform an assessment of critical element resources and examine the processes and conditions controlling the concentration of byproduct critical elements by deposit type, and 3) improve understanding of the surficial geochemistry ...

The Biogeochemistry of Indium, Gallium, and Germanium in ...

Indium (In), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge) are metals important in new energy technologies, and use of these metals is expanding dramatically. Humans are significantly impacting their natural cycling. Mining and smelting appear to be currently the largest sources of these metals to the environment, primarily because In, Ga, and Ge are byproducts of lead and zinc mining.

Germanium: Element and geochemistry | SpringerLink

Bernstein, L.R. (1963) Geology and mineralogy of the Apex germanium–gallium mine, Washington County, Utah. US Geolog. Surv. Bull., 1577, 9 pp. Google Scholar

A Review of germanium environmental distribution ...

Germanium geochemistry in mineral groundwater from mountain areas of Southern Poland – A case study of its affinity to other elements. In: Geological and medical sciences for a safer environment, Book of Abstracts. GeoMed, 185–185. Bari, Italy. Elmi, S. A. (2009). Gallium and germanium distribution in geothermal water.

Germanium and Indium

Professional Paper 1802–I U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Germanium and Indium By W.C. Pat Shanks III, Bryn E. Kimball, Amy C. Tolcin, and David E. Guberman

Mineralization zoning of coal-metal deposits in China

Substantive progress has been made in extracting germanium, gallium, rare earth elements (REEs), lithium, and other metals from coal. Coal deposits are becoming important sources of many strategic metal resources. However, ore deposit theory study for coal-metal resources has not been systematic. This paper summarizes the mineralization characteristics of germanium, gallium, lithium, and REEs ...

Gallium (III)-acetate speciation studies under ...

This paper describes an experimental investigation in aqueous solution of the equilibria between gallium (III) metal ions and acetate ions as a model of low-molecular-weight ligand using potentiometric techniques under physiological conditions of temperature 37 °C and ionic strength 0.15 mol.dm-3 NaCl. Potentiometric measurements were monitored with the help of a glass electrode calibrated ...

Global Geochemical Database for Critical Minerals in ...

The Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples Database (CMDB) contains chemistry and geologic information for historic ore and ore-related rock samples from mineral deposits in the United States. In addition, the database contains samples from archetypal deposits from 27 other countries in North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Europe.

(PDF) Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy

Germanium is a trace element that is chemically similar to Si, and in the critical zone, both elements are primarily sourced from silicate rocks that exhibit Ge/Si ratios in the range of 1-3 μmol ...

Trace element geochemistry of sphalerite in contrasting ...

Nov 26, 2018· The historic silver mining district of Freiberg (Germany) comprises hydrothermal vein-style mineralization of Permian and Cretaceous age. We compare sphalerite compositions with associated ore-forming fluids and constrain the behavior of critical metals such as In, Ge, and Ga in contrasting hydrothermal environments. Fluid inclusion studies reveal that the Permian veins formed due to boiling ...

Gallium concentrations in the metal phases of various ...

A study of iron meteorites with low concentrations of gallium and germanium, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 10.1016/S0016-7037(67)80043-7, 31, 2, (161-180), (1967). Crossref K.F. Fouché, A.A. Smales, The distribution of trace elements in chondritic meteorites.

The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and ...

Jan 01, 2006· Gallium, germanium, indium and scandium are relatively rare elements of strategic importance. They are employed in a variety of high-technology applications such as integrated circuits, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, thin-film coatings, and metal alloys. ... In and Sc are extracted, very little is known about the aqueous geochemistry of ...

[PDF] Isotope geochemistry of gallium in hydrothermal ...

Corpus ID: 56154089. Isotope geochemistry of gallium in hydrothermal systems @inproceedings{Payne2016IsotopeGO, title={Isotope geochemistry of gallium in hydrothermal systems}, author={Constance E. Payne}, year={2016} }

Host minerals for the gallium-germanium ores of the Apex ...

economic geology germanium geochemistry goethite gallium minerals metal ores jarosite metals oxides strategic minerals sulfates Utah United States You do not currently have access to this article. You could not be signed in.

Germanium: Mineral information, data and localities.

25.00% of all Germanium deposits have Uranium. Cadmium: 2: 103: 1.94% of all Cadmium deposits have Germanium. 25.00% of all Germanium deposits have Cadmium. Gallium: 2: 6: 33.33% of all Gallium deposits have Germanium. 25.00% of all Germanium deposits have Gallium. Cobalt: 2: 400: 0.50% of all Cobalt deposits have Germanium. 25.00% of all ...

Gallium and germanium production could be seven times ...

Gallium is essential for the production of high-performance chips used in smartphones and tablets, while germanium is required, for instance, for the production of fibre optic cables. According to Frenzel's estimate, based on comprehensive calculations, the annual global production of gallium and germanium could be at least seven times higher ...

Gallium: Element and geochemistry | SpringerLink

Bernstein, L.R. (1985) Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 49, 2409–22. Google Scholar

What is Gallium - Uses of Gallium & Chemical Properties of ...

What is Gallium? Gallium is a chemical element with atomic number 31. The Solid gallium is of blue-gray metal having orthorhombic crystalline structure whereas a very pure gallium is coated with stunning silvery color.; It does not exist in pure form in nature, and its compounds do not act as a …

Selenium - Wikipedia

Selenium is a chemical element with the symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal (more rarely considered a metalloid) with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic.It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust.

Annual production of gallium and germanium could be much ...

The global supply potential of the high-tech metals gallium and germanium is much greater than actual annual production levels. This is the main conclusion from Max Frenzel's work. Frenzel, a ...

Analytical Geochemistry, Volume 5 - 1st Edition

Analytical Geochemistry is the fifth book in the Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics series. This book serves as an introductory manual, presenting techniques that are frequently required in the analysis of rocks and minerals. After a broad introduction to geochemistry, the book explores qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis.

Metallogenic Provinces of the Southwestern United States ...

Some of the metallogenic provinces of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico are defined by the geographic distribution of trace elements in the primary sulfide minerals chalcopyrite and sphalerite. The elements investigated include antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, gallium, germanium, indium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silver, tellurium, thallium, and tin.

Gallium and germanium geochemistry during magmatic ...

Contents of Ga and Ge in granites, rhyolites, orthogneisses and greisens of different geochemical types from the Bohemian Massif were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of typical whole-rock samples. The contents of both elements generally increase during fractionation of granitic melts: Ga from 16 to 77 ppm and Ge from 1 to 5 ppm. The differences in Ge and Ga ...

GALLIUM AND GERMANIUM DISTRIBUTON IN …

The geochemistry of gallium and germanium was studied in geothermal waters from the low-temperature fields in the Southern Lowlands and the Geysir high-temperature field in Iceland. Germanium concentrations in waters with temperatures below 225°C were in the range <0.05-24 ppb whereas those of gallium lie in the range of <0.01-21 ppb.

Germanium Deposits in the United States - ScienceBase-Catalog

Current annual production of refined germanium is led by China at 85,000 tons, while estimates place U.S. reserves near 2,500 tons. Reported production of germanium in the U.S. is limited to one site, the Apex mine in Washington County, Utah. The Apex mine produced gallium (Ga) and germanium as primary products during the mid-1980s.

O 2011 Mineralogy and geochemistry of the bauxite deposits ...

10 Boski, T., and Paepe, R., 1988, Quantitative mineralogy of bauxite profiles in SE Guinea Bissau: Catena, v. 15, p. 417–432. Boulangé, B., 1984, Les formations bauxitiques lateritiques de Côte-d'Ivoire—Les faciès, leur transformation, leur distribution et l'évolution du modelé [Lateritic bauxite formations from Ivory Coast—Facies, transformation, repartition and evolution of ...

Germanium - Wikipedia

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.